Adhyay 18 we have discussed the five important aspects now we shall discuss the remaining six aspects. Hence we can say this chapter 18 can be divided into Eleven important divisions.
So now in this concluding chapter, we shall discuss the following:
- “ Buddhi” or Understanding
- “Dheerta” or Resilience
- “Sukh” or Happiness
- “Varna Vyavastha” or Caste- system
- Who is Krishna’s favorite devotee?
- Final conclusion or last opinion of Sanjay to Dhritarashtra.
In the daily struggles while living our lives we observe that a father forces his son to follow his footsteps and a younger brother tries to emulate his elder brother. This leads to the ruining of a career when we try to do what actually is not our true calling. Shri Krishna says that the “Varna Vyavastha” or the caste system is derived from the “Tri-guna”, depending on our disposition we have to decide our work. This caste system is not what is prevalent in the world now. God had decided the caste system according to our disposition towards work. If our innate qualities match with our profession then we can be successful in our lives.
Shri Krishna says in the 40th verse that:
This verse concludes the discussion so far made about the three Gunas influencing the personality and the behavioral pattern of the living organisms. Shri Krishna says that there is no creature either on the earth or among the Gods in the heaven who is free from the influences of these three Gunas.
He continues and says
Buddhi/Understanding is of three types:
- Satvik Buddhi
- Rajsik Buddhi
- Tamsik Buddhi
Satvik Budhi or understanding is the one which understands ” Kartavya” and “Akartavya” it is also able to differentiate between fear and fearlessness. They understand the quality of purity in thoughts and in actions. Those possessing Rajsik are unable to comprehend between right and wrong. Tamsik, on the other hand, is only lusting for bodily pleasures only moving towards wrong deeds. They are the ones that consider all wrong to be right. Basically, they have no understanding at all, all that they know of is perpetually wrongdoing.
Next, Shri Krishna explains to Arjuna the three kinds of steadiness or “Dheerta”.
Saatvik Dheerta is one in which when our mind, spirit, and organs of perception i.e “Indriya” are all concentrated on the God sublime, all the focus is steadfastly on the supreme God. Rajsik Dheerta is one in which the complete focus is on the result or fruit of the action, such a person is ever desirous of enjoying the fruits of wealth, pleasure. He does everything to attain the heavens. In Tamsik fear and agitation rule their lives. They are full of sadness and grief at all times.
Then Shri Krishna moves ahead and explains the three kinds of happiness. The supreme bliss is the ultimate universal aim of the being. If the dominating force is Satvik believes in self-control their desires are under control. They are the people who are internally happy and are not dependent on outside forces for gratification. In Rajsik happiness overindulgence is observed. They drink alcohol to consume tobacco for pleasure. They consume sugar excessively for enjoyment and pleasure but later on suffer from diseases which is a resultant of overindulgence in life. They believe in temporary happiness by getting involved in issues of momentary pleasures of sense objects. The third kind of happiness is Tamsik in nature; such people obtain happiness from sleep. They are lazy; they have an incapacity of the intellect which is unable to discriminate between right and wrong. They are the ones who blatantly ignore the Holy Scriptures and the likes.
Next, Shri Krishna explains to Arjuna, that there is a fourfold classification of human beings and the basis of this is the presence of Gunas in different combinations among people. These societal discrimination are as follows:
- Vaishya and
Now, Shri Krishna offers a detailed description of this social order, Brahman is that being who has defeated the ego and is the who has control over his “Indriya”, he who is able to comprehend scriptures. A Kshatriya is courageous, gutsy and a fighter. He is full of valor spirit of bravery and heroism. The third category who inherently perform calculations. They are industrious in nature. They work for agriculture, cattle rearing and trading. Shudra is the ones who are meant to be serving. They do not put their brains to use. They just blindly serve the other three categories.
This is the path to liberation by following your duties and performing the appropriate action. Each category of the aforesaid persons mentioned by Shri Krishna has to labor with a spirit of commitment for their own fruition and obtain the sagacity of fulfillment. To obtain a state of excellence and perfection a person has to work according to his prescribed duties.
Shri Krishna emphasizes to Arjuna that he has now finally bestowed upon him the complete secret knowledge ever known to mankind. He further says do not share this knowledge or the qualities of a person who shall never be benefitted by Geeta are:
- A person who lacks devotion
- A person who is not willing to lead an austere life.
- A person who does not want to listen or who lacks the desire and respect for listening to the Shrimad Bhagwad Geeta.
Finally, he enunciates that a person who spreads my words will obtain me. A person who resplendent with devotion surrenders to me and takes refuge in me shall stand liberated from all sins. Shri Krishna emphasizes that the person who spreads the knowledge of Geeta is most dear to me. A person who learns and comprehends the Geeta is also important and God himself shall protect him. Shri Krishna the supreme soul gives a promise to all humanity that if a devotee brimming with dedication towards God consecrates his life, feelings and thoughts, and his actions and bows down before him. The Supreme Lord Krishna shall guide him through the battle of life and he need have no fears. Once you have put your entire faith in Shri Krishna a devotee need not have any tears or fears. God shall see him through all the sorrows of life and beyond.
With this promise to the entire humanity Shri Krishna smiles and says to Arjun, “Were you able to destroy the fear you had due to excessive attachment after all the knowledge that I have expounded to you?”.
Arjuna resplendent with allegiance “Kritagyata” folded hands confesses to Shri Krishna that he has arisen from his state of unconscious confusions. He reaffirms that he has regained his real nature and has been able to conquer the fears previously oscillating his knowledge lacking mind. Arjun, now stands valiantly, all his previous disillusions destroyed and doubts dispelled. He now considers himself an instrument in the hands of God and is ready to serve his duty as the warrior he is meant to be.
The conversation is a dialogue between Shri Krishna the supreme soul the “Higher self” and Arjuna the `Lower self in a man. It symbolizes the interaction between the Spirit and the Matter.
In this way, Sanjay who had received the “Divya Chakshu” from the greatest sage “Ved Vyas” narrated the entire Bhagwad Geeta to Dhritarashtra who was not just blind with the incapacity to see but also blinded with unsolicited affection or “Moh” for his evil son Duryodhan. He was desirous of learning who shall end up being the victor in this battle of Mahabharata.
Sanjay’s words should be taken as a final conclusion. Sanjay’s opinion should be given utmost importance as Sanjay is the one who was childlike, who would not lie and always give a fair decision and opinion. Sanjaya is soft hearted
Sanjay says to Dhritarashtra that he stands enchanted by the words of Shri Krishna who has shared this biggest knowledge. He further says that wherever Shri Krishna is present and along with him Arjuns the mighty warrior is present. Victory lies there! Rest all is futile. Excellence is bestowed to those.
Though it may appear in the beginning that negativity or evil is winning however at the need it is the truth that always triumphs. Victory shall always rest with the truth.
In today’s world also human being is suffering. There are widespread confusion and conflicts, this is due to the fact that man is unable to invoke the supreme soul Shri Krishna within himself.
One who is able to realize this infinite limitless knowledge is the true “Gyaani”, one who assimilates its ideals and practices and preaches its concepts is the true embodiment of Geeta.