Chapter 18 : Moksha Sannyaasa Yog (Part 2)| Shreemad Bhagwad Geeta Sanjay Ki Nazar Se

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Adhyay 18 we have discussed the five important aspects now we shall discuss the remaining six aspects. Hence we can say this chapter 18 can be divided into Eleven important divisions.

So now in this concluding chapter, we shall discuss the following:

  1. “ Buddhi” or Understanding
  2. “Dheerta” or  Resilience
  3. “Sukh” or Happiness
  4. “Varna Vyavastha” or Caste- system
  5. Who is Krishna’s favorite devotee?
  6. Final conclusion or last opinion of Sanjay to Dhritarashtra.

 In the daily struggles while living our lives we observe that a father forces his son to follow his footsteps and a younger brother tries to emulate his elder brother. This leads to the ruining of a career when we try to do what actually is not our true calling. Shri Krishna says that the “Varna Vyavastha” or the caste system is derived from the “Tri-guna”, depending on our disposition we have to decide our work. This caste system is not what is prevalent in the world now. God had decided the caste system according to our disposition towards work. If our innate qualities match with our profession then we can be successful in our lives.

Shri Krishna says in the 40th verse that:

This verse concludes the discussion so far made about the three Gunas influencing the personality and the behavioral pattern of the living organisms. Shri Krishna says that there is no creature either on the earth or among the Gods in the heaven who is free from the influences of these three Gunas.

He continues and says

Buddhi/Understanding  is of three types:

  • Satvik  Buddhi
  • Rajsik Buddhi
  • Tamsik Buddhi

Satvik Budhi or understanding is the one which understands ” Kartavya” and “Akartavya” it is also able to differentiate between fear and fearlessness. They understand the quality of purity in thoughts and in actions. Those possessing Rajsik are unable to comprehend between right and wrong. Tamsik, on the other hand, is only lusting for bodily pleasures only moving towards wrong deeds. They are the ones that consider all wrong to be right. Basically, they have no understanding at all, all that they know of is perpetually wrongdoing.

Next, Shri Krishna explains to Arjuna the three kinds of steadiness or “Dheerta”.

Saatvik Dheerta is one in which when our mind, spirit, and organs of perception i.e “Indriya” are all concentrated on the God sublime, all the focus is steadfastly on the supreme  God. Rajsik Dheerta is one in which the complete focus is on the result or fruit of the action, such a person is ever desirous of enjoying the fruits of wealth, pleasure. He does everything to attain the heavens. In Tamsik fear and agitation rule their lives. They are full of sadness and grief at all times.

Then Shri Krishna moves ahead and explains the three kinds of happiness. The supreme bliss is the ultimate universal aim of the being. If the dominating force is Satvik believes in self-control their desires are under control. They are the people who are internally happy and are not dependent on outside forces for gratification. In Rajsik happiness overindulgence is observed. They drink alcohol to consume tobacco for pleasure. They consume sugar excessively for enjoyment and pleasure but later on suffer from diseases which is a resultant of overindulgence in life. They believe in temporary happiness by getting involved in issues of momentary pleasures of sense objects. The third kind of happiness is Tamsik in nature; such people obtain happiness from sleep. They are lazy; they have an incapacity of the intellect which is unable to discriminate between right and wrong. They are the ones who blatantly ignore the Holy Scriptures and the likes.

Next, Shri Krishna explains to Arjuna, that there is a fourfold classification of human beings and the basis of this is the presence of Gunas in different combinations among people. These societal discrimination are as follows:

  • Brahmana
  • Kshatriya,
  • Vaishya and
  • Shudra.

Now, Shri Krishna offers a detailed description of this social order, Brahman is that being who has defeated the ego and is the who has control over his “Indriya”, he who is able to comprehend scriptures. A Kshatriya is courageous, gutsy and a fighter. He is full of valor spirit of bravery and heroism. The third category who inherently perform calculations. They are industrious in nature. They work for agriculture, cattle rearing and trading. Shudra is the ones who are meant to be serving. They do not put their brains to use. They just blindly serve the other three categories.

This is the path to liberation by following your duties and performing the appropriate action. Each category of the aforesaid persons mentioned by Shri Krishna has to labor with a spirit of commitment for their own fruition and obtain the sagacity of fulfillment. To obtain a state of excellence and perfection a person has to work according to his prescribed duties.

Shri Krishna emphasizes to Arjuna that he has now finally bestowed upon him the complete secret knowledge ever known to mankind. He further says do not share this knowledge or the qualities of a person who shall never be benefitted by Geeta are:

  • A person who lacks devotion
  •  A person who is not willing to lead an austere life.
  • A person who does not want to listen or who lacks the desire and respect for listening to the Shrimad Bhagwad Geeta.

Finally, he enunciates that a person who spreads my words will obtain me. A person who resplendent with devotion surrenders to me and takes refuge in me shall stand liberated from all sins. Shri Krishna emphasizes that the person who spreads the knowledge of Geeta is most dear to me. A person who learns and comprehends the Geeta is also important and God himself shall protect him. Shri Krishna the supreme soul gives a promise to all humanity that if a devotee brimming with dedication towards God consecrates his life, feelings and thoughts, and his actions and bows down before him. The Supreme Lord Krishna shall guide him through the battle of life and he need have no fears. Once you have put your entire faith in Shri Krishna a devotee need not have any tears or fears. God shall see him through all the sorrows of life and beyond.

With this promise to the entire humanity Shri Krishna smiles and says to Arjun, “Were you able to destroy the fear you had due to excessive attachment after all the knowledge that I have expounded to you?”.

Arjuna resplendent with allegiance “Kritagyata” folded hands confesses to Shri Krishna that he has arisen from his state of unconscious confusions. He reaffirms that he has regained his real nature and has been able to conquer the fears previously oscillating his knowledge lacking mind. Arjun, now stands valiantly, all his previous disillusions destroyed and doubts dispelled. He now considers himself an instrument in the hands of God and is ready to serve his duty as the warrior he is meant to be.

The conversation is a dialogue between Shri Krishna the supreme soul the “Higher self” and Arjuna the `Lower self in a man. It symbolizes the interaction between the Spirit and the Matter.

In this way, Sanjay who had received the “Divya Chakshu” from the greatest sage “Ved Vyas” narrated the entire Bhagwad Geeta to Dhritarashtra who was not just blind with the incapacity to see but also blinded with unsolicited affection or “Moh” for his evil son Duryodhan. He was desirous of learning who shall end up being the victor in this battle of Mahabharata.

Sanjay’s words should be taken as a final conclusion. Sanjay’s opinion should be given utmost importance as Sanjay is the one who was childlike, who would not lie and always give a fair decision and opinion. Sanjaya is soft hearted

Sanjay says to Dhritarashtra that he stands enchanted by the words of Shri Krishna who has shared this biggest knowledge. He further says that wherever Shri Krishna is present and along with him Arjuns the mighty warrior is present. Victory lies there! Rest all is futile. Excellence is bestowed to those.

Though it may appear in the beginning that negativity or evil is winning however at the need it is the truth that always triumphs. Victory shall always rest with the truth.

In today’s world also human being is suffering. There are widespread confusion and conflicts, this is due to the fact that man is unable to invoke the supreme soul Shri Krishna within himself.

One who is able to realize this infinite limitless knowledge is the true “Gyaani”, one who assimilates its ideals and practices and preaches its concepts is the true embodiment of Geeta.

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Chapter 18 : Moksha Sannyaasa Yog (Part 1)| Shreemad Bhagwad Geeta Sanjay Ki Nazar Se

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This chapter is the final conclusion of Bhagwad Geeta, we can say just like the second chapter was its introduction or preamble so this concluding chapter is its review. This adhyay of Shrimad Bhagwad Geeta is the longest chapter comprising of 78 verses so we have divided it into two parts for convenience of understanding of the readers.

When we are able to finally comprehend “Who Am I? Then man is able to understand “Moksha” and also the supreme soul. When we finally begin to be aware of the answer to Who am I ? then we are also able to clearly witness our destiny and the labor we have to put in order to reach or fulfill our destiny.

It was marvelously explained by Shri Krishna in the previous chapters of Bhagwad Geeta that there are three types of personalities depending on their dispositions or “Gunas”. These can be classified as “Satvik”, the ” Rajasik” and the lazy and dull tendency which is ” Tamasik”. This Chapter discusses how these Gunas create disparity among individuals in their capability and aptitude to perform sacrifices, speaking qualities and also their knowledge capacity and wisdom, in their actions, resilience and internal cheerfulness. In this chapter, we will understand the ultimate meaning of Bhagwad Geeta. When we know our aim then we are propelled in the right direction. The ultimate objective has to determine if we want to understand the true meaning of life. So this chapter deals with knowing our definitive objective in life.

The most important aspect is the meaning of the following three words, repeated in the chapters previously.

  • “Satvikta”
  • “Rajsikta”
  • “Tamsikta”

Satvikta here refers to “Parmarth” what we do to achieve our objective. We all want to move towards Satvikta.

Our journey is moving towards a conclusion, are the final destination. We are made to understand that the total giving up all desire-provoked activities is “Sanyaas” while the renunciation while giving up of the fruits of actions is “Tyaag” or relinquishment.

What is “Moksha”, This means that we give up the attachment or “Moh” towards the fruit of our action this happens when we are staying away from our holy Bhagwad Geeta. When we go for the last rituals of a person, the cremation place is called as “Moksha Dwar”, this is because we mortal beings believe that “Moksha” or liberation can be obtained only after death. The truth, however, is contrary to the aforesaid; the truth is that we can attain liberation while living in this world of attachment. This just is determined whether one has obtained detachment from the worldly affairs.

This chapter of Bhagwad Geeta highlights the following five important aspects:

  1. Difference between “Sanyaas” and “Tyaag”?
  2. How many categories of “Tyaag” are existent?
  3. When does our “Karma” achieve “Siddhi” that is when is it that we are able to finally accomplish our work and objective?
  4. Types of Knowledge
  5. What is “Karma” and who is “Karta”?

 Bhagwad Geeta was created by Shri Krishna about five thousand years ago, however, with the passage of time, the true meaning of “Sanyaas” was lost. People started believing that giving up work or actions was Sanyaas.

Bhagwad Geeta very clearly expresses the “Varna Vyawastha” or caste system which shows what kind of work is attributed to whom. Shri Krishna explains clearly the duties of the people according to their caste. If a human being renounces the work then they can never achieve liberation.

“Tyaag” is superior to “Sanyaas”, the total giving up all desire-provoked activities is “Sanyaas” while the renunciation, while giving up of the fruits of actions and having “Nishkaam” bhaav, is “Tyaag” or relinquishment and doing it with “Anasakt” bhav. The two important words here are ” Nishkaam” and “Anasakt”.

“Nishkaam” makes the heart contented, when we give up expectations we are at ease. So when our mind and heart calm we are liberated and happy. “Anasakt” means not getting attached to the fruits of action, when we out of fear do not perform the duties then we are doomed towards downfall.

The action which is our duty according to nature is the effort put forth by us at present to attain its fruit which comes in the future. So, we can say that the fruit is a zenith or culmination in the future of the present action. When an action is prompted by desire then it may be the cause of anxiety and mental disturbances.

Hence renunciation is the objective to be reached through abandoning the apprehension for the pleasure of the fruits of actions. Both “Sannyas” and “Tyag” are actually the disciplines in our life activities. These terms, however, do not indicate that work can be ignored. Shri Krishna insists that we must always work. Shri Krishna tells us not to completely renounce our works but the adaptation of all works into “nishkaam karma”

Sometimes, it happens with all of us that we feel we are unable to complete our tasks or we were not able to accomplish whatever we wanted to do. Shri Krishna moves ahead and tells us that whatever action a man performs by his body, speech and mind, For a work to be complete whether it is correct or the reverse, there are five “Stambh” or causes to it.

Sri Krishna says that there are five aspects or “Stambh” of action or five divisions of work which are as follows:

1. The body which is the gateway for the entry and existence of the      worldly    stimuli

  2. The “Aatma”

  3. “Indriyan” which are the organs of perception.

 4. The organs of action or “Indriyo ki Kriya”

5. “Deviya” which is also the “Prarabdh”.This is the karma of past lives.

How are these related is a question which might befuzzles our minds? When we want to do some work, The Atma tells then the body begins to follow the work. “Indriya” also need to have “Chestha” ie desire to do the work. Last which is “Deviya” is the wish of God. Only when all the above five stated are in sync then the ultimate result can be obtained.

In the previous chapters we have studied about “Knowledge” or “Gyaan” but in the following verses Shri Krishna tells us that there are sub-types of knowledge also which are as follows:

  1. Satvik Gyaan
  2. Rajsik Gyaan
  3. Tamsik Gyaan

Satvik is one in which a person acquires the knowledge by considering all beings as one. There is no differentiation in the mind of such a person, he realizes that there is an underlying harmony in all things and they are a part of the universal soul which is God. Such a person shall never harm anyone.

Rajsik Gyaan is acquired by people who differentiate among people, they believe that different souls dwell in different people and they do not consider all a part of the universal God. On the other hand, the third category of people are those who are the lowest strata of knowledge seekers, they consider beings as just being as a body as a man or a woman. They cannot think beyond the acquisition of bodily pleasures.

What is “Satvik Karma” and who is “Satvik Karta”? Satvik Karma as previously discussed is a person who does work without thinking about the results of actions. Such a doer of the action is “Sthir Pragya” and is a Satvik Karta.

Rajasik karma or work is the kind of work which is propelled by desires which are in waiting for realization. Such people are self-centered and have a vainglorious attitude. They cannot think beyond “I”.

The Third kind of Karma or work is Tamsik work this kind of work is taken up without any regard for the penalty or its consequences. This might bring disaster and sorrow to all around in the world including the performer. They originate in an individual out of his wrong or “Tamsik” knowledge and misconception about the goal of life. These are undertaken by men of Tamasic knowledge.

This knowledge should be used by our beings to improve ourselves to become better human beings and not for judging and misjudging others.

These thoughts shall now be continued in the forthcoming chapter.

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